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【英语美文】Of Study

发布时间:2016-07-18 21:37:44 访问次数:610次

Of Study 《论读书》Francis Bacon 弗朗西斯·培根
1

Studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability. Their chief use for delight, is in privateness and retiring; for ornament, is in discourse; and for ability, is in the judgmentand disposition of business.读书足以怡情,足以傅彩,足以长才。其怡情也,最见于独处幽居之时;其傅彩也,最见于高谈阔论之中;其长才也,最见于处世判事之际。




2

For expert and execute, and perhaps judge of particulars, one by one; but the general counsels, and the plots and marshalling of affairs, come best form those that are learned. To spend too much time in studies is sloth; to use them too much for ornament, is affectation; to make judgement wholly by their rules, is the humour of a scholar.练达之士虽能分别处理细事或一一判别枝节,然纵观统筹,全局策划,则舍好学深思者莫属。读书费时过多易惰,文采藻饰太盛则矫,全凭条文断事乃学究故态。




3

They perfect nature, and are perfected by experience: for natural abilities are like natural plants, that need proyning by study; and studies themselves do give forthdirections too much at large, except they be bounded in by experience.读书补天然之不足,经验又补读书之不足,盖天生才干犹如自然花草,读书然后知如何修剪移接,而书中所示,如不以经验范之,则又大而无当。




4

Crafty men contemn studies, simple men admire them, and wise men use them; for they teach not their own use; but that is a wisdom without them, and above them, won by observation.有一技之长者鄙读书,无知者羡读书,唯明智之士用读书,然书并不以用处告人,用书之智不在书中,而在书外,全凭观察得之。




5

Read not to contradict and confute; nor to believe and take for granted; nor to find talk and discourse; but to weigh and consider.读书时不可存心诘难读者,不可尽信书上所言,亦不可只为寻章摘句,而应推敲细思。




6

Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested; that is, some books are to be read only in parts;others to be read, but notcuriously; and some few to be read wholly, and with diligence and attention. Some books also may be read by deputy, and extracts made of them by others; but that would be only in the less important arguments, and the meaner sort of books; else distilled books are, like common distilled waters, flashy things.书有可浅尝者,有可吞食者,少数则须咀嚼消化。换言之,有只需读其部分者,有只须大体涉猎者,少数则须全读,读时须全神贯注,孜孜不倦。书亦可请人代读,取其所作摘要,但只限题材较次或价值不高者,否则书经提炼犹如水经蒸馏,淡而无味。




7

Reading maketh a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man. And therefore, if a man write little, he had need have a great memory; if he confer little, he had need have a present wit; and if he read little, he had need have much cunning, to seem to know that he doth not.读书使人充实,讨论使人机智,笔记使人准确。因此不常做笔记者须记忆力特强,不常讨论者须天生聪颖,不常读书者须欺世有术,始能无知而显有知。




8

Histories make men wise; poets witty; the mathematics subtile; natural philosophy deep; moral grave; logic and rhetoric able to contend. Abeunt studia in morse.读史使人明智,读诗使人灵秀,数学使人周密,科学使人深刻,伦理学使人庄重,逻辑修辞之学使人善辩;凡有所学,皆成性格。




9

Nay there is no stand or impediment in the wit, but may be wrought out by fit studies: like as diseases of the body may have appropriate exercises. Bowling is good for the stone and reins; shooting for the lungs and breast; gentle walking for the stomach; riding for the head; and the like. So if a man's wit be wandering, let him study the mathematics; for in demonstrations, if his wit be called away never so little, he must begin again. If his wit be not apt to distinguish or find differences, let him study the schoolmen; for they are cymini sectores. If he be not apt to beat over matters, and to call up one thing to prove and illustrate another, let him study the lawyers' cases. So every defect of the mind may have a special receipt.人之才智但有滞碍,无不可读适当之书使之顺畅,一如身体百病,皆可借相宜之运动除之。滚球利睾肾,射箭利胸肺,慢步利肠胃,骑术利头脑,诸如此类。如智力不集中,可令读数学,盖演题需全神贯注,稍有分散即须重演;如不能辩异,可令读经院哲学,盖是辈皆吹毛求疵之人;如不善求同,不善以一物阐证另一物,可令读律师之案卷。如此头脑中凡有缺陷,皆有特效可医。

单词注释


1. ornament: v. 装饰,美化;n.装饰,装饰物

【参考例句】

The flowers were put on the table for ornament. 花放在桌子上做装饰用。

She wears a crystal ornament on her chest. 她的前胸戴了一个水晶饰品。

2. discourse: n. 论文,演说;谈话;话语;vi.讲述,著述

【参考例句】

We'll discourse on the subject tonight. 我们今晚要谈论这个问题。

He fell into discourse with the customers who were drinking at the counter. 他和站在柜台旁的酒客谈了起来。

3. judgment: n. 审判;判断力,识别力,看法,意见

【参考例句】

The chairman flatters himself on his judgment of people. 主席自认为他审视人比别人高明。

He's a man of excellent judgment. 他眼力过人。

4. disposition: n. 性情,性格;意向,倾向;排列,部署

参考例句:

He has made a good disposition of his property. 他已对财产作了妥善处理。

He has a cheerful disposition. 他性情开朗。

5. sloth: n. [动] 树懒;懒惰,懒散

【参考例句】

Absence of competition makes for sloth. 没有竞争会导致懒惰。

The sloth spends most of its time hanging upside down from the branches. 大部分时间里树懒都是倒挂在树枝上。

6. forth: adv. 向前;向外,往外

【参考例句】

The wind moved the trees gently back and forth. 风吹得树轻轻地来回摇晃。

He gave forth a series of works in rapid succession. 他很快连续发表了一系列的作品。

7. crafty: adj. 狡猾的,诡诈的

【参考例句】

He admired the old man for his crafty plan. 他敬佩老者的神机妙算。

He was an accomplished politician and acrafty autocrat. 他是个有造诣的政治家,也是个狡黠的独裁者。

8. contemn: v. 蔑视

【参考例句】

The wicked contemn God. 恶人轻侮上帝。

I contemn the people who treat children socruelly. 我蔑视如此虐待孩子的人。

9. curiously: adv. 有求知欲地;好问地;奇特地

参考例句:

He looked curiously at the people. 他好奇地看着那些人。

He took long stealthy strides. His hands were curiously cold. 他迈着悄没声息的大步。他的双手出奇地冷。

10. distilled: adj. 由蒸馏得来的v.蒸馏( distil的过去式和过去分词 );从…提取精华

【参考例句】

The televised interview was distilled from 16 hours of film. 那次电视采访是从16个小时的影片中选出的精华。来自《简明英汉词典》

Gasoline is distilled from crude oil. 汽油是从原油中提炼出来的。 来自《简明英汉词典》

11. witty: adj. 机智的,风趣的

【参考例句】

Her witty remarks added a little salt to the conversation. 她的妙语使谈话增添了一些风趣。

He scored a bull's-eye in their argument with that witty retort. 在他们的辩论中他那一句机智的反驳击中了要害。

12. subtile: adj.  微妙的;狡猾的;敏锐的;隐约的

【参考例句】

These kinds of food help brain maintain subtile and improve capacity of understanding and memory. 因为这类食物能使头脑保持敏锐,对理解和记忆功能有重要作用。

Actually, some subtile emotion would exist between persons of the same gender, which is more intimate than friendship, but less than love. 实际上,同性之间,可能存在一种所谓“友达以上,恋人未满”的微妙情感。

13. logic: n. 逻辑(学);逻辑性

【参考例句】

What sort of logic is that? 这是什么逻辑?

I don't follow the logic of your argument. 我不明白你的论点逻辑性何在。

14. rhetoric: n. 修辞学,浮夸之言语

【参考例句】

Do you know something about rhetoric? 你懂点修辞学吗?

Behind all the rhetoric, his relations with the army are dangerously poised. 在冠冕堂皇的言辞背后,他和军队的关系岌岌可危。

15. mores: n. 风俗,习惯,民德,道德观念

【参考例句】

The mores of that village are hard to believe. 那村子的习俗让人难以置信。

We advocate a harmonious society where corruption is swept away, and social mores are cleared. 我们提倡弊绝风清,建设一个和谐社会。

16. nay: adv. 不;n. 反对票,投反对票者

【参考例句】

He was grateful for and proud of his son's remarkable, nay, unique performance. 他为儿子出色的,不,应该是独一无二的表演心怀感激和骄傲。

Long essays, nay, whole books have been written on this. 许多长篇大论的文章,不,应该说是整部的书都是关于这件事的。

17. wrought: v. 引起;以…原料制作;运转;adj.制造的

【参考例句】

Events in Paris wrought a change in British opinion towards France and Germany. 巴黎发生的事件改变了英国对法国和德国的看法。

It's a walking stick with a gold head wrought in the form of a flower. 那是一个金质花形包头的拐杖。

18. bowling: n. 保龄球运动

【参考例句】

Bowling is a popular sport with young and old. 保龄球是老少都爱的运动。

Which sport do you like most, golf or bowling? 你最喜欢什么运动,高尔夫还是保龄球?

19. reins: 感情,激情;缰( rein的名词复数 );控制手段;掌管;(成人带着幼儿走路以防其走失时用的)保护带

【参考例句】

She pulled gently on the reins. 她轻轻地拉着缰绳。

The government has imposed strict reins on the import of luxury goods. 政府对奢侈品的进口有严格的控制手段。

20. demonstrations: 证明(demonstration的名词复数 );表明;表达;游行示威

【参考例句】

Lectures will be interspersed with practical demonstrations. 讲课中将不时插入实际示范。

The new military government has banned strikes and demonstrations. 新的军人政府禁止罢工和示威活动。

21. sectors: n. 部门( sector的名词复数 );领域;防御地区;扇形

【参考例句】

Berlin was divided into four sectors after the war. 战后柏林分成了4 个区。来自《简明英汉词典》

Industry and agriculture are the two important sectors of the national economy. 工业和农业是国民经济的两个重要部门。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》

22. illustrate: v. 举例说明,阐明;图解,加插图

【参考例句】

The company's bank statements illustrate its success. 这家公司的银行报表说明了它的成功。

This diagram will illustrate what I mean. 这个图表可说明我的意思。

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